From Poland 1980-89 to Algeria 2019 we can identify seven “waves” where massive civil society mobilization has successfully challenged the ruling regimes.
These changes have mainly been done outside the accepted constitutional processes and civil society actors have been central driving forces.
In this booklet we have taken a closer look at Benin and the changes in 1989-90. Our hope is to inspire students and colleagues to do more research on less studied unarmed regime changes.
Only by studying and evaluating the experiences of the past can we better understand and help future generations in similar situations.